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Koppal District
Area, Population & Sex Ratio

Geographical Area : 7189.0 Km2
Population in KOPPAL (Census 2011)
Total Population
Total : 13,91,292
Male : 7,01,479
Female : 6,89,813

Under 6 population
Total : 1,94,199
Male : 99,460
Female : 94,739

Disabled population

Total disabled population : 21041
In seeing : 7969
In speech : 2164
In hearing : 1108
In movement : 7667
Mental : 2133

Rank ( VoiceOfBharat.org Analysis )
Backwardness : 321
Sex Ratio Rank : 465
(Rank one is least sex ratio - Cenus 2001)
HIV Category District : A
(HIV Sentinel Surveillance 2004 - 2006)
Disability : 411 (Census 2001)
Literacy Ratio : 465 (Census 2001)
Minority : Does not figure in MCD
Water : Flouride in Groundwater above permissible limits


Brief About Koppal District
Koppal, a newborn district of Karnataka state, carved out of Raichur District, came into existance on 01-04-1998. It is situated between 15* 09' 00" to 16* 03' 30" North Latitude and 75* 47' 30" to 76* 48' 10" East Longitude. It consists of four talukas viz : Koppal, Gangavathi, Kushtagi & Yelburga. Koppal district is surrounded by Raichur district in the east, Gadag district in the West, Koppal district in the north, Bellary district in the south. Koppal district headquarters is closest to the world heritage Hampi.

The administrative blocks in the district are as below :

1. No. of Talukas : 4
2. No. of Hoblis : 20
3. No. of Inhabited villages : 596
4. No. of Un-Inhabited Villages : 41
5. No. of City & Muncipal Corporation/Councils/Town Panchayaths : 4
6. No. of Gram Panchayaths : 134

Salient Features of the District

SOIL :

Koppal district is having partly red sandy and black cotton soil suitable for agriculture and horticulture crops. The taluk is having few rocky mountains with exrophytic vegetation.

RIVERS :

The Tungabhadra river is formed by union of two rivers, viz., the Tunga and the Bhadra, both of which rise at Gangamula in the Varaha Parvata of the Western Ghats. This is also a perennial river, very deep in certain places and almost unfordable even in the dry seoson. This river enters the district near Kesalapur village at the south-western tip of Koppal Taluk. The general slope of the land in the district being north-west to south-east, the Tungabhadra has a large number of rivulets and streams serving as tributaries. But none of these streams is of any great importance by itself and they generally go dry during the summer. There is Thungabhadra reservoir at Munirabad which is in the border of koppal taluk. The Tungabhadra river also is reputed as one of the important rivers of South India.

CLIMATE & RAINFALL :

The climate of the district is very hot and dry. Hot season starts from middle of the February to end of May. Southwest maonoon ranges from June to end of September. Post monsoon is furing the October and November. Cold season is from December to middle of February. The average rainfall of the district is 572 mm and average rainy days are 46.

POPULATION :

The total population of Koppal district is 11.93 lakhs (as per 2001 census) among which 9.95 lakhs from rural area and 1.98 lakhs from Urban area. The district is having sex ratio of 982 per 1000 males. The leteracy level of the distrit is 62.39%. Population Density is 216 per Sq.Km.

OCCUPATION :

The working population of Koppal district is 46.46% of the total population. The main workers population comprises of 35.37% of the total population and 11.08% is the marginal workers. Of the total working population 22.5%, 15.14% are cultivators and agricultural workers respectively. The workers population in the district indicates that cultivators and agricultural labours dominate dominate the total working population with 37.69%. The non-working population of the district is 53.54%.

AREA AND LAND UTILISATION PATTERN :

The total geographical area of Koppal district is 552495 hectares out of which forest area is 29451 hectares. Land not available for cultivation is 55497 hectares. Area sown is 396627 hectares.

Brief History of Koppal

The history of Koppal can be traced back to the kingdoms of Shathavahanas, Gangas, Hoysalas and Chalukya Dynasties. The name of the district i.e. "KOPPAL" is found in the poetic work of the great poet Kavirajamarga (During King Nrupathunga's time of 814-878 A.D.) as "VIDITHA MAHA KOPANA NAGARA". During Ashoka's period, the Jainism gained greater momentum in this region. Therefore, it was called "Jainkashi". In twelth century A.D. Veerashaivaism of Social Reformer Basaveshwara became popular. The present Gavi Math of Koppal has great attraction.

Anegundi of Gangavathi Taluk was the first capital of great Vijayanagara Dynasty. The old palace and fort still exist where annual festival called "Anegundi Utsava" is being celebrated in a befitting manner every year. The other important historical places of Koppal district are Itagi, Kukanoor, Madinoor, Indrakeela Parvatha, Kanakagiri, Pura, Chikkabenakal, Hirebenakal & Huligi.

Before Independence, Koppal was under the Nizam of Hyderabad. India got Independence on 15th August 1947, since Koppal was part of Hyderabad region, the people of the region had to struggle further to attain Independence from the clutches of Hyderabad Nizam. On 18th September, 1948, the Hyderabad-Karnataka got independence from Nizam. Since then until 01-04-1998, Koppal District was in Raichur District of Gulbarga Revenue Division. On 01-04-1998, Koppal district consisting of four taluks viz. Koppal, Gangavathi, Kushtagi & Yelburga came into being.

District Administration

District Administration may be defined as the management of public affairs within a territory demarcated for the purpose. The district has always been an important administrative unit in India.

The functions of the district administration may be grouped for purposes of convenience , into a number of fairly broad categories.

The first group relates to the public safety, the protection of the citizen and all of his rights. It includes the maintenance of law and order and the administration of civil and criminal justice.

The second group may be called the revenue and excise group, which is concerned with the assessment and collection of taxes and duties of different kinds. It includes land revenue, irrigation cess, income-tax, agricultural-income tax, sales tax, entertainment tax, stamp duty, court fees, registration fees, excise duties - both Central and State - of various kinds, taxes on motor vehicles and others. Under this group may also be included recovery of loans which are advanced to cultivators, control regulations and deriving of revenue from liquor, drugs, etc, control and maintaince of government treasuries, land reforms, land acquisition, maintenance of land records, and including also the programme of consolidation of agricultural holdings.

The third group consists of agriculture in all its aspects, animal husbandry, irrigation, communication and industries. These form part of the economic group of administrative functions.

Then there is another group, which generally relates to the welfare and development functions, some of which are also economic. These include community developement, co-operatives, public health, education, social welfare, panchayath-raj and others.

Food and Civil supplies stand in a category by themselves.

Another duty cast upon the district administration is of dealing with calamities like floods, famines, fires, earthquakes and the like.

The district administration is also concerned with the conduct of all elections to the parliament, to the state legislature and to the local bodies as also with the conduct of population census.

The next group with which the district administartion is concerned is local self-government, which includes institutions like muncipalities, taluka development boards and village panchayaths.

Finally, the district administration also exercises certain other executive functions of government which are not defined as such. This power to assume and exercise the executive authority of government becomes vitally important in periods of crisis endangering the life and security of the community. Though the list is not exhaustive, it demonstrates, to a certain extent, the sheer variety of functions which the district administration is called upton to undertake.

The Deputy Commissioner is the head of district administration who is of I.A.S. cadre. The main functions of the Deputy Commissioner, in general, may be defined as executive and his/her duties may be broadly classified as : (1) Revenue (2) Law and Order (3) Elections (4) Coordination (5) Public weal in general. In the general pettern of the district administration, he is the custodian of Government property in land-including trees and water - wherever situated and, at the same time, the guardian of the interests of members of the public in land, insofar as the interests of Government in land have been conceded to them.

Places of Interest

ANEGUNDI is in Gangavathi Taluk and is one of the most ancient places in the district, meaning in Kannada "elephant pit" said to have been the place where the elephants of the Vijayanagara kings were kept, is situated on the left bank of the river Tungabhadra, just opposite the ruined capital of the Vijayanagara empire. Anegundi has been identified with a part of Kishkindha, the kingdom of Vali and Sugreva of the Ramayana. The picture at the left side shows one of the ancient palaces in ANEGUNDI and at the right side picture shows the Anegundi Fort Entrance Gate. Both Hampi and Anegundi were destroyed by the confederacy of Muslim kings after the great battle of Rakshasa-Tangadgi in 1565. Tippu Sultan sacked the town of Anegundi in 1776.

ITAGI in Yelburga taluk, is about three miles from the south of the Bannikoppa railway station on the Gadag-Koppal line. This place is famous for the Mahadeva temple, which is one of the finest of the later Chalukyan temples. The temple, which faces east consists of a shrine with an ante-chamber, a closed hall with porches on either side of it towards the north and the south, and the pillared hall which is open at the sides. The pillared hall was originally supported by 68 pillars. Of these, 26 are large ones, standing on the floor and forming the main support of the roof. The remaining, which are shorter, stand on the stone bench surrounding the hall and carry the sloping eaves. The large columns are of different designs, but are arranged symmetrically with regard to the shape and pattern of each. The four central ones, very rich in design, have angular carvings arranged vertically both in the shafts and capitals.

The inner hall, which is closed, has, beside the entrance from the outer hall, has also doorways towards the north and the south, which are richly adorned with sculpture. The top of the shikhara is now missing; but it was divided into three storeys which are quite distinct. The small niches, which decorate the centre of each storey rising one above the other, are exceedingly handsome. The three principal niches on the shrine walls, bold accentuated by their deep projecting cornices are now empty, their images having disappeared.

The temple was built in 1112 A.D by mahadeva, a General (Dandanayaka) of the Western Chalukya king Tribhuvanamalla Vikramaditya VI and praises the temple as 'Devalaya Chakravarti'. This temple can be said to be one of the best in the country both in magnificence of its architectural style and luxuriant decorative detail.


KINNAL, in Koppal taluk, about eight miles from Koppal, is noted for manufacture of toys and images by Chitragars. Weaving, preparing of combs from horns and pottery are the other industries of this place.


KANAKAGIRI, in Gangavathi taluk, is an ancient place situated on the Gangavati-Lingasugur road, about 13 miles from Gangavati. Kanakagiri means a "Hill of God" and its old name was Swarnagiri with the same meaning. This place was probably the head quarters of the southern viceroyalty of the Mauryas. It is said that Kanaka Muni, a saint, performed penance at this place. The place has several temples built by the Naiks of Kanakgiri, the chief among them being the Kanakachalapathi temple, which is a large one and is of considerable architectural charm; it is a fine specimen of soutn Indian architecture of the Vijayanagara times and has spacious halls and massive pillars. The gopuras and walls have well-executed sculpture. There are in this temple elegantly made statues of Rajas and Ranis in black polished stone and several large wooden statues and plaster models of the mythological figures. On the ourskirts of the town, there is a fine and well-designed royal bath constructed by Venkatappa Naik. According to a popular saying current in the area, "people with eyes must see Kanakagiri and those with legs, Hampi", which means that the Kanakagiri temples are a delightful feast for the eyes and that one must be prepared to go avout rirelessly to see the sprawling ruined capital of Vijayanagara (Hampi). An annual jatra (Fair) associated with the Kanakachalapathi temple, which is held in the month of Phalguna, is largely attended.


KOPPAL, is the District head quarters and is situated on the left bank of Hirehalla, a tributary of the Tungabhadra, and is on the Guntakal-Hubli railway line. Koppal is situated at the foot of a rock, the later being crowned by a fort. There is another range of hills to the west, the highest spur of which is called Palkigundu, 2,399 ft. in height. There is another spur on the east, called Gavimatha, (shown at the right side) which is about 50 ft. above the surrounding land. There is a third spur to the south; its height above sea level is 1,980 ft. and is called Bahadur Bande. The fort rock is in the middle. The Gavimath spur contains four caves and a modern temple, with Lingayat Gurus. There are also some jain samadhis opposite one of these caves. The hill commands a beautiful view. ( Right side picture shows the Gavimatha situated on hill ) The annual Gavisiddeshwara Jatra (Fair) held here about the month of January is the biggest in the District.

To the west of Palkigundu, there is a hillock called the Malimallappa hill, on the top of which are a number of dolmens. Some of these dolmens, which are locally called Moriyara-angadi or Moriyas shops, are intact, while others are disturbed. The fields between this hill and the Palkigundu hill are called Pandavara vathara

There have been found two Ashokan edicts, belonging to the 'Minor' series and agreeing with the northern version, on the Gavimatha and Palkigundu hills, one on each. The one on the Gavimatha hill is complete and legible, while that on the Palkigundu is so worn out that only a few letters are legible. ( Left side picture shows the Malemallappa temple on Malemallappa hill )

KOPPAL FORT is another important object of historical interest at Koppal. It is not known definitely by whom it was built. But it was acquired by Tippu Sultan in 1786 AD from a Paleyagar and rebuilt into one of the strongesxt forts with the help of French engineers. In may 1790, it was besieged by the forces of the British and the Nizam. ( Right side picture shows the Koppal Fort ) Sir John Malcolm, who participated in this siege, has described it as without exception the strongest place. The fortifications consists of two forts, The upper fort is situated on a lofty and almost isolated summit in a gorge on the eastern side of a cluster of tocky hills which occupy an area of several square miles. The fort is about 400 feet above the plains.

KUKANOOR, in Yelburga taluk, is a small town lying seven miles due north of Bannikoppa station on the Guntakal-Hubli railway line. The town, though now small, was an important place in the early and mediaeval days and is rich in antiquarian remains of the later Chalukyan style of architecture and these buildings range from the 8th to the 13th century A.D. and illustrate the building tendencies of the age. The group of temples that represents the early Chalukyan school is called teh Navalinga group. Two other important temples are those of Kalleshvara and Mallikarjuna. The Kalleshwara temple is a fine example of the Chalukyan style and is in good condition. The original form of the Mallikarjuna temple, however, cannot be fully made out; the shrine and the mantapa also have been altered and built over in recent years. The Kalleshwara temple contains one Kannada inscription, while the other has three, one of them recording the date of construction of the temple in the 12th century A.D. But the most important temple from the relegious point of view is that of Mahamaya; (left side picture shows Mahamaya temple) it is in the same enclosure in which the Navalinga temple is situated, a building of considerable dimensions but devoid of architectural merits.

MUNIRABAD, in Koppal taluk, about eight kilo meters from Hospet, on the Hubli-Guntakal railway line and about 32 kilometers from Koppal District headquarters. It has become an important place now, especially due to Tungabhadra dam ( shown in right side picture ). The Left Bank Canal from here, which passes through the Koppal, Gangavathi taluks, irrigates a large extent of agricultural lands in the district.

It is humming with industrial activities also with a sugar factory, Iron, Chemicals and fertilizers factory. The vast water-spread of the Tungabhadra reservoir here presents a fascinating spectacle and is a source of attraction for the tourists. . There are also a few well-furnished modern guest houses at the place, as also well maintained flower gardens. Besides a Japanese-type ornamental garden known as Pampa Vana (as shown in pictures) which is the first of its kind in the state, and it is also a source of attraction for tourists.

An inscription dated in the year 1099 A.D. found here mentions that this place was gifted to one Chaturvedi Bhatta, by the Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI. The former constructed an irrigation canal from the Tungabhadra river. Huligi, is the old name of this place called Vyagrapuri in Sanskrit. It has a temple dedicted to Huligemma, which appears to have been built originally in the 13th century. There is a Dhwajasthamba, which is of a height of about 25 ft., in front of the temple. Annually, a jatra (Fair)is held under the auspices of the Huligemma temple.

PURA, in Kushtagi taluk, about the five miles from Tavargera, is noted for its fine and spacious temple of Someshwara which has Koti Lingas , where annually a big jatra(Fair) is held in the month of Shravana.

 

 
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