Area, Population & Sex Ratio
Geographical Area : 7189.0 Km2
Population in KOPPAL (Census 2011)
Total : 13,91,292
Male : 7,01,479
Female : 6,89,813
Under 6 population
Total : 1,94,199
Male : 99,460
Female : 94,739
Total disabled population : 21041
In seeing : 7969
In speech : 2164
In hearing : 1108
In movement : 7667
Mental : 2133
Rank ( VoiceOfBharat.org Analysis
Backwardness : 321
Sex Ratio Rank : 465
(Rank one is least sex ratio - Cenus 2001)
HIV Category District : A
(HIV Sentinel Surveillance 2004 - 2006)
Disability : 411 (Census 2001)
Literacy Ratio : 465 (Census 2001)
Minority : Does not figure in MCD
Water : Flouride in Groundwater above permissible limits
Brief About Koppal District
Koppal, a newborn district of Karnataka state, carved out of
Raichur District, came into existance on 01-04-1998. It is situated
between 15* 09' 00" to 16* 03' 30" North Latitude and
75* 47' 30" to 76* 48' 10" East Longitude. It consists
of four talukas viz : Koppal, Gangavathi, Kushtagi & Yelburga.
Koppal district is surrounded by Raichur district in the east, Gadag
district in the West, Koppal district in the north, Bellary district
in the south. Koppal district headquarters is closest to the world
The administrative blocks in the district are as below :
1. No. of Talukas : 4
2. No. of Hoblis : 20
3. No. of Inhabited villages : 596
4. No. of Un-Inhabited Villages : 41
5. No. of City & Muncipal Corporation/Councils/Town Panchayaths
6. No. of Gram Panchayaths : 134
Salient Features of the District
Koppal district is having partly red sandy and
black cotton soil suitable for agriculture and horticulture crops.
The taluk is having few rocky mountains with exrophytic vegetation.
The Tungabhadra river is formed by union of two
rivers, viz., the Tunga and the Bhadra, both of which rise at Gangamula
in the Varaha Parvata of the Western Ghats. This is also a perennial
river, very deep in certain places and almost unfordable even in
the dry seoson. This river enters the district near Kesalapur village
at the south-western tip of Koppal Taluk. The general slope of the
land in the district being north-west to south-east, the Tungabhadra
has a large number of rivulets and streams serving as tributaries.
But none of these streams is of any great importance by itself and
they generally go dry during the summer. There is Thungabhadra reservoir
at Munirabad which is in the border of koppal taluk. The Tungabhadra
river also is reputed as one of the important rivers of South India.
CLIMATE & RAINFALL :
The climate of the district is very hot and dry.
Hot season starts from middle of the February to end of May. Southwest
maonoon ranges from June to end of September. Post monsoon is furing
the October and November. Cold season is from December to middle
of February. The average rainfall of the district is 572 mm and
average rainy days are 46.
The total population of Koppal district is 11.93
lakhs (as per 2001 census) among which 9.95 lakhs from rural area
and 1.98 lakhs from Urban area. The district is having sex ratio
of 982 per 1000 males. The leteracy level of the distrit is 62.39%.
Population Density is 216 per Sq.Km.
The working population of Koppal district is 46.46%
of the total population. The main workers population comprises of
35.37% of the total population and 11.08% is the marginal workers.
Of the total working population 22.5%, 15.14% are cultivators and
agricultural workers respectively. The workers population in the
district indicates that cultivators and agricultural labours dominate
dominate the total working population with 37.69%. The non-working
population of the district is 53.54%.
AREA AND LAND UTILISATION PATTERN :
The total geographical area of Koppal district
is 552495 hectares out of which forest area is 29451 hectares. Land
not available for cultivation is 55497 hectares. Area sown is 396627
Brief History of Koppal
The history of
Koppal can be traced back to the kingdoms of Shathavahanas, Gangas,
Hoysalas and Chalukya Dynasties. The name of the district i.e. "KOPPAL"
is found in the poetic work of the great poet Kavirajamarga (During
King Nrupathunga's time of 814-878 A.D.) as "VIDITHA MAHA KOPANA
NAGARA". During Ashoka's period, the Jainism gained greater
momentum in this region. Therefore, it was called "Jainkashi".
In twelth century A.D. Veerashaivaism of Social Reformer Basaveshwara
became popular. The present Gavi Math of Koppal has great attraction.
Anegundi of Gangavathi Taluk was the first capital
of great Vijayanagara Dynasty. The old palace and fort still exist
where annual festival called "Anegundi Utsava" is being
celebrated in a befitting manner every year. The other important
historical places of Koppal district are Itagi, Kukanoor, Madinoor,
Indrakeela Parvatha, Kanakagiri, Pura, Chikkabenakal, Hirebenakal
Before Independence, Koppal was under the Nizam
of Hyderabad. India got Independence on 15th August 1947, since
Koppal was part of Hyderabad region, the people of the region had
to struggle further to attain Independence from the clutches of
Hyderabad Nizam. On 18th September, 1948, the Hyderabad-Karnataka
got independence from Nizam. Since then until 01-04-1998, Koppal
District was in Raichur District of Gulbarga Revenue Division. On
01-04-1998, Koppal district consisting of four taluks viz. Koppal,
Gangavathi, Kushtagi & Yelburga came into being.
District Administration may be defined as the management
of public affairs within a territory demarcated for the purpose.
The district has always been an important administrative unit in
The functions of the district administration may be grouped for
purposes of convenience , into a number of fairly broad categories.
The first group relates to the public safety, the
protection of the citizen and all of his rights. It includes the
maintenance of law and order and the administration of civil and
The second group may be called the revenue and
excise group, which is concerned with the assessment and collection
of taxes and duties of different kinds. It includes land revenue,
irrigation cess, income-tax, agricultural-income tax, sales tax,
entertainment tax, stamp duty, court fees, registration fees, excise
duties - both Central and State - of various kinds, taxes on motor
vehicles and others. Under this group may also be included recovery
of loans which are advanced to cultivators, control regulations
and deriving of revenue from liquor, drugs, etc, control and maintaince
of government treasuries, land reforms, land acquisition, maintenance
of land records, and including also the programme of consolidation
of agricultural holdings.
The third group consists of agriculture in all
its aspects, animal husbandry, irrigation, communication and industries.
These form part of the economic group of administrative functions.
Then there is another group, which generally relates
to the welfare and development functions, some of which are also
economic. These include community developement, co-operatives, public
health, education, social welfare, panchayath-raj and others.
Food and Civil supplies stand in a category by
Another duty cast upon the district administration
is of dealing with calamities like floods, famines, fires, earthquakes
and the like.
The district administration is also concerned with
the conduct of all elections to the parliament, to the state legislature
and to the local bodies as also with the conduct of population census.
The next group with which the district administartion
is concerned is local self-government, which includes institutions
like muncipalities, taluka development boards and village panchayaths.
Finally, the district administration also exercises
certain other executive functions of government which are not defined
as such. This power to assume and exercise the executive authority
of government becomes vitally important in periods of crisis endangering
the life and security of the community. Though the list is not exhaustive,
it demonstrates, to a certain extent, the sheer variety of functions
which the district administration is called upton to undertake.
The Deputy Commissioner is the head of district
administration who is of I.A.S. cadre. The main functions of the
Deputy Commissioner, in general, may be defined as executive and
his/her duties may be broadly classified as : (1) Revenue (2) Law
and Order (3) Elections (4) Coordination (5) Public weal in general.
In the general pettern of the district administration, he is the
custodian of Government property in land-including trees and water
- wherever situated and, at the same time, the guardian of the interests
of members of the public in land, insofar as the interests of Government
in land have been conceded to them.
Places of Interest
ANEGUNDI is in Gangavathi Taluk
and is one of the most ancient places in the district, meaning in
Kannada "elephant pit" said to have been the place where
the elephants of the Vijayanagara kings were kept, is situated on
the left bank of the river Tungabhadra, just opposite the ruined
capital of the Vijayanagara empire. Anegundi has been identified
with a part of Kishkindha, the kingdom of Vali and Sugreva of the
Ramayana. The picture at the left side shows one of the ancient
palaces in ANEGUNDI and at the right side picture shows the Anegundi
Fort Entrance Gate. Both Hampi and Anegundi were destroyed by the
confederacy of Muslim kings after the great battle of Rakshasa-Tangadgi
in 1565. Tippu Sultan sacked the town of Anegundi in 1776.
ITAGI in Yelburga taluk, is about three miles
from the south of the Bannikoppa railway station on the Gadag-Koppal
line. This place is famous for the Mahadeva temple, which is one
of the finest of the later Chalukyan temples. The temple, which
faces east consists of a shrine with an ante-chamber, a closed hall
with porches on either side of it towards the north and the south,
and the pillared hall which is open at the sides. The pillared hall
was originally supported by 68 pillars. Of these, 26 are large ones,
standing on the floor and forming the main support of the roof.
The remaining, which are shorter, stand on the stone bench surrounding
the hall and carry the sloping eaves. The large columns are of different
designs, but are arranged symmetrically with regard to the shape
and pattern of each. The four central ones, very rich in design,
have angular carvings arranged vertically both in the shafts and
The inner hall, which is closed, has, beside the
entrance from the outer hall, has also doorways towards the north
and the south, which are richly adorned with sculpture. The top
of the shikhara is now missing; but it was divided into three storeys
which are quite distinct. The small niches, which decorate the centre
of each storey rising one above the other, are exceedingly handsome.
The three principal niches on the shrine walls, bold accentuated
by their deep projecting cornices are now empty, their images having
The temple was built in 1112 A.D by mahadeva, a
General (Dandanayaka) of the Western Chalukya king Tribhuvanamalla
Vikramaditya VI and praises the temple as 'Devalaya Chakravarti'.
This temple can be said to be one of the best in the country both
in magnificence of its architectural style and luxuriant decorative
KINNAL, in Koppal taluk, about eight miles from
Koppal, is noted for manufacture of toys and images by Chitragars.
Weaving, preparing of combs from horns and pottery are the other
industries of this place.
KANAKAGIRI, in Gangavathi taluk, is an ancient
place situated on the Gangavati-Lingasugur road, about 13 miles
from Gangavati. Kanakagiri means a "Hill of God" and its
old name was Swarnagiri with the same meaning. This place was probably
the head quarters of the southern viceroyalty of the Mauryas. It
is said that Kanaka Muni, a saint, performed penance at this place.
The place has several temples built by the Naiks of Kanakgiri, the
chief among them being the Kanakachalapathi temple, which is a large
one and is of considerable architectural charm; it is a fine specimen
of soutn Indian architecture of the Vijayanagara times and has spacious
halls and massive pillars. The gopuras and walls have well-executed
sculpture. There are in this temple elegantly made statues of Rajas
and Ranis in black polished stone and several large wooden statues
and plaster models of the mythological figures. On the ourskirts
of the town, there is a fine and well-designed royal bath constructed
by Venkatappa Naik. According to a popular saying current in the
area, "people with eyes must see Kanakagiri and those with
legs, Hampi", which means that the Kanakagiri temples are a
delightful feast for the eyes and that one must be prepared to go
avout rirelessly to see the sprawling ruined capital of Vijayanagara
(Hampi). An annual jatra (Fair) associated with the Kanakachalapathi
temple, which is held in the month of Phalguna, is largely attended.
KOPPAL, is the District head quarters and is situated
on the left bank of Hirehalla, a tributary of the Tungabhadra, and
is on the Guntakal-Hubli railway line. Koppal is situated at the
foot of a rock, the later being crowned by a fort. There is another
range of hills to the west, the highest spur of which is called
Palkigundu, 2,399 ft. in height. There is another spur on the east,
called Gavimatha, (shown at the right side) which is about 50 ft.
above the surrounding land. There is a third spur to the south;
its height above sea level is 1,980 ft. and is called Bahadur Bande.
The fort rock is in the middle. The Gavimath spur contains four
caves and a modern temple, with Lingayat Gurus. There are also some
jain samadhis opposite one of these caves. The hill commands a beautiful
view. ( Right side picture shows the Gavimatha situated on hill
) The annual Gavisiddeshwara Jatra (Fair) held here about the month
of January is the biggest in the District.
To the west of Palkigundu, there is a hillock called
the Malimallappa hill, on the top of which are a number of dolmens.
Some of these dolmens, which are locally called Moriyara-angadi
or Moriyas shops, are intact, while others are disturbed. The fields
between this hill and the Palkigundu hill are called Pandavara vathara
There have been found two Ashokan edicts, belonging
to the 'Minor' series and agreeing with the northern version, on
the Gavimatha and Palkigundu hills, one on each. The one on the
Gavimatha hill is complete and legible, while that on the Palkigundu
is so worn out that only a few letters are legible. ( Left side
picture shows the Malemallappa temple on Malemallappa hill )
KOPPAL FORT is another important
object of historical interest at Koppal. It is not known definitely
by whom it was built. But it was acquired by Tippu Sultan in 1786
AD from a Paleyagar and rebuilt into one of the strongesxt forts
with the help of French engineers. In may 1790, it was besieged
by the forces of the British and the Nizam. ( Right side picture
shows the Koppal Fort ) Sir John Malcolm, who participated in this
siege, has described it as without exception the strongest place.
The fortifications consists of two forts, The upper fort is situated
on a lofty and almost isolated summit in a gorge on the eastern
side of a cluster of tocky hills which occupy an area of several
square miles. The fort is about 400 feet above the plains.
KUKANOOR, in Yelburga taluk, is a small town lying
seven miles due north of Bannikoppa station on the Guntakal-Hubli
railway line. The town, though now small, was an important place
in the early and mediaeval days and is rich in antiquarian remains
of the later Chalukyan style of architecture and these buildings
range from the 8th to the 13th century A.D. and illustrate the building
tendencies of the age. The group of temples that represents the
early Chalukyan school is called teh Navalinga group. Two other
important temples are those of Kalleshvara and Mallikarjuna. The
Kalleshwara temple is a fine example of the Chalukyan style and
is in good condition. The original form of the Mallikarjuna temple,
however, cannot be fully made out; the shrine and the mantapa also
have been altered and built over in recent years. The Kalleshwara
temple contains one Kannada inscription, while the other has three,
one of them recording the date of construction of the temple in
the 12th century A.D. But the most important temple from the relegious
point of view is that of Mahamaya; (left side picture shows Mahamaya
temple) it is in the same enclosure in which the Navalinga temple
is situated, a building of considerable dimensions but devoid of
MUNIRABAD, in Koppal taluk, about
eight kilo meters from Hospet, on the Hubli-Guntakal railway line
and about 32 kilometers from Koppal District headquarters. It has
become an important place now, especially due to Tungabhadra dam
( shown in right side picture ). The Left Bank Canal from here,
which passes through the Koppal, Gangavathi taluks, irrigates a
large extent of agricultural lands in the district.
It is humming with industrial activities also with a sugar factory,
Iron, Chemicals and fertilizers factory. The vast water-spread of
the Tungabhadra reservoir here presents a fascinating spectacle
and is a source of attraction for the tourists. . There are also
a few well-furnished modern guest houses at the place, as also well
maintained flower gardens. Besides a Japanese-type ornamental garden
known as Pampa Vana (as shown in pictures) which is the first of
its kind in the state, and it is also a source of attraction for
An inscription dated in the year 1099 A.D. found
here mentions that this place was gifted to one Chaturvedi Bhatta,
by the Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI. The former constructed an
irrigation canal from the Tungabhadra river. Huligi, is the old
name of this place called Vyagrapuri in Sanskrit. It has a temple
dedicted to Huligemma, which appears to have been built originally
in the 13th century. There is a Dhwajasthamba, which is of a height
of about 25 ft., in front of the temple. Annually, a jatra (Fair)is
held under the auspices of the Huligemma temple.
PURA, in Kushtagi taluk, about
the five miles from Tavargera, is noted for its fine and spacious
temple of Someshwara which has Koti Lingas , where annually a big
jatra(Fair) is held in the month of Shravana.