| Voice of Kandhamal :
Kandhamal is a tribal based region.
The quality of education is very disheartening.
Communication and transportation infrastructure need upgradation.
Irrigation infrastructure is very weak.
Majority people live on bread line.
The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is a complete failure.
Employment opportunities are hardly available.
Area, Population & Sex Ratio
Geographical Area : 8021.0 Km2
Population in Kandhamal (Census 2011)
Total : 731,952
Male : 359,401
Female : 372,551
Total disabled population : 18030
In seeing : 9082
In speech : 1085
In hearing : 1891
In movement : 4601
Mental : 1371
Rank ( VoiceOfBharat.org Analysis
Backwardness : 27
Sex Ratio Rank : 527
(Rank one is least sex ratio - Cenus 2001)
HIV Category District : D
(HIV Sentinel Surveillance 2004 - 2006)
Disability : 437 (Census 2001)
Literacy Ratio : 475 (Census 2001)
Minority : Does not figure in MCD
Brief About Kandhamal District
The ancient history of Kandhamal district may be traced back to
the 3rd Century B.C. It finds mention as an unconquered Atavika
country fields in the Kalinga Rock Edicts of the legendary Mauryan
Emperor , Ashok . This mountainous Atavika rajya unquestionably
encompassed the Kandhamal region.
Some historians are of the view that Mahakantar
subdued by the Gupta Emperor, Samudragupta, in the 4th century A.D.
, during his Dakshinapatha Campaign, included Kandhamal area and
he led his victorious army to the south from Kosala and Kural through
this district. He defeated some kings in Ganjam.
The present Kandhamal district is made up with
some segments of three erstwhile principalities of Boudh, Ghumsar
and Khemundi , reigned by the Bhanjas and the Gangas from ancient
times. Their reign came to an end when the British came to this
region in the nineteenth century
G.Udayagiri constituted the northern fringe of Ghumusara kingdom
of the Bhanjas. They occupied this state in the 9th Century and
continued to rule over it till 1835. Ganjam came under the Britishers
in 1765. The Bhanjas could not put up with their interference and
aggressive attitude from the very beginning and they raised the
banner of revolt frequently against the British. The Kandhas and
the Paikas forming the Ghumasar army waged relentless wars under
the able leadership of Dohara Bissoyi from 1815 to 1835.
Deposing Dhananjay Bhanja for his habitual recalcitrance
the British occupied Ghumusar on November 3,1835. Dhananjaya Bhanja
died at G.Udayagiri in December of the same year as a fugitive.
Balliguda region was under the Gangas of Kandhamal,
most probably from the 10th Century and the dynasty ruled over these
hilly tracts till the 19th century. British captured this area in
phases from 1830 to 1880 by subjugating some hill chiefs,who were
the proteges of the Gangas.
Ghumusar and Balliguda regions were under the uninterrupted
reign of the Bhanjas and Gangas, respectively, for about a millenium.
But the Kandhamal area, which was part of Boudh, witnessed a chequered
history during the same period.
The present Kandhamal sub-division was an integral
part of Boudh from time immemorial till 1855. The earliest history
of this area is gleaned from a number of copper-plate inscriptions
issued by the kings of the early Bhanja dynasty, that reigned over
Boudh and Kandhamal in the 8th and 9th Century. Their kingdom was
known as Khinjali Mandala. From the 10th Century to the advent of
British in this region, Boudh, including andhamal, has been governed
in sucecession by the following royal dynasties: the Somavansis,
the Chindak Nagas/Telugu Chodas, the Kalchuris and the Bhanjas.
The history of Boudh-Kandhamal for 500 years prior to the coming
of the British is however, still nebulous.
The Britishers launched a vigorous campaign in
these hilly tracts with the objectives of annexing the areas to
their empire and suppressing the abdominable practice of human sacrifice,
then prevalent among the Kandhas. The Britishers encountered stiff
resistance from the tribals for a prolonged period of 20 years from
1835 to 1855. As the Boudh Raja utterly failed to curb the horrendous
ritual of the tribals, the British truncated a large area, where
the Kandhas were predominant , from Boudh on February 15,1855 and
named this newly annexed territory as Kandhamal.
After British conquest of Uttar Ghumasar (G.Udayagiri
area) and Uttar Khemundi (Balliguda area) these territories were
placed under the administration of the Collector of Ganjam district.
These areas remained under the control and adminstration of the
British until India attained her independence.
Kandhamal remained a Tahasil from 1855 to 1891
and it was adminstered by a Tahasildar under the direct control
and supervision of the superintendent of the Tributary mahals of
Cuttack. In 1891, it was upgraded to sub-division and tagged with
Anugul district. When the new provience of Orissa was formed in
1936, and Ganjam was merged with Orisaa, from the Madras presidency,
Kandhamal became a sub-division of Ganjam. In the wake of the amalgamation
of the princely states with Orissa in January 1948, Boudh and Kandhamal
constituted the new district of Boudh-Kandhamal, with its headquarters
at Phulbani. Balliguda sub-division was added to Boudh-Kandhamal
district on 1.1.1949. With the secession of Boudh from Phulbani
district as a separate district only Balliguda and Kandhamal sub-divisions
remained with Phulbani district, which was later rechristened as
Kandhamal in June,1994.
Kandha Tribes : The word Kandha is spelt variously
which are synomanous such as Kond,Khond, Kandha. But they identify
themselves as Kuilaku or Kuinga. The language they speak as Kui,
which has no script.
The Kandhas are identify from their names. Some
writers have attempted to traceout the Telegu derivation from the
word Konda means feels. Those living on the hill tops are named
as Kandha. It is a fact that the kandha like to leave in hill tops
and their subject people the Panos liked to leave beneath their
settlement. The common surnames of Kandhas are Pradhan, Mallick,
Konhar, Majhi. And those worship deities have surnames like Dehury,
Jharkar, Jani etc. According to the 1991 census the ST population
of the district is 2.81 lakhs which constitutes 51.5% of the total
Ethnographic Records : Different views have been
given by different authorities about identity of Kandhas.
Dalton describe the Kandhas as tall as average Hindus and much
darker in complexion.
McPherson described the Kandhas as faithful to friends, devoted
to their chiefs, resolute, brave, hospitable, Laborious.
The Kandhas have their loyalty to their erstwhile feudatory chiefs
in Orissa and elsewhere. They are treated as valiant worriers and
discharged their services very faithfully to their rulers. They
offered their valuable services at the time of freedom movement
.To name a few among them are Chakara Bisoyi and Dohra Bisoyi.
Types of Kandhas : According to the area of habitation Kandhas
are classified into three classes viz.
Malua or Dongoria
The Kutia Kondhas are found mainly in Kotgarh,Tumudibandh and Belgarh
area of Balliguda Sub-division. The Dongoria or Malua live in high
lands of hilly area in the district. The Desia or Oriya Kandhas
live in plain areas with the non-tribal.
Dresses, food habits and houses : The dress of the Kandhas is very
The men wear a long and narrow cloth which passed round the waste
and between the legs, the ends of this cloth are brightly colored
and hang down behind like a tall. The Kandha men used to have long
hair which they fastened in front by knot, in which they invariably
stuck cigars, comb, metal pins etc.
The women wear two clothes, one around waist and another for upper
portion of the body. The Kutia Kandha women wear only one loin cloth.
Thy have intense love for ornaments and wear gold and silver necklaces,
ear-rings, nose-rings and heir ornaments. Colored beads generally
used as necklaces. They borne the entire rim of the ear with silver
rings. They tattoo their faces before marriage. The Kutia Kandha
women don't have tattoo on their faces. Most of the old customs
among the Kandhas are now fast disappearing.
Food Habits :
Kandhas ear rice with boiled green leaves and vegetables,. They
use scoop made of laves for taking food, use peja (gruel of rice)
as a sick diet. They are very fond of meat on social and religious
functions, but don't take beef, fish is taken when available.
They smoke and chew tabacco leaves. Both men and women consume excessively
Salapa and Mohua liquor on all occasions.
Houses made up of wooden walls(planks) and bamboo splits with a
thatching of forest grass and leaves. Generally neat and tidy but
lacks ventilation. Domestic animals and residents are all huddled
in two or three rooms. Doors are made up of bamboo splits designed
Rituals in the Society :
Child Birth : The pollution in
connection with child birth ends on the fifth day. On that day father
of the child sacrifices a fowl and offers cooked meat, rice and
liquor to the ancestors so that no ill may befall the child. Some
house holds perform this ceremony on the 7th day. After one month
hair on the head of child shaved off and a feast is given to the
Death : The dead bodied are burnt except the case of pregnant women
where the dead bodies buried. On the following day priest purified
all the people who attended the funeral by sprinkling some oil over
their heads with a small broom made up of twigs or blade of grass.
After a few days they renew all the earth vessels and perform a
sacrifice giving a feast to neighbors and relatives.
Agriculture is main occupation. 70% of the land
are unproductive. People are still practising primitive method of
cultivation i.e. shifting cultivation. Turmeric, Ginger, Arrowroot
and other spices are main produce of the land.
Collection of Minor Forest Produce(MFP).
Dhangeda - Dhangedi : Otherwise known as Loar-Enda
dance performed by Kutia and Kandha. They use silver coin chains,
bangles and a musical instrument known as Dheka for performance.
Dadra is the tal of the song.
Krahenda : A hunting and warrior dance popular among SC. Drums and
flutes are the instruments used. This dance is in its vanishing
Singha Badya : observed among SC people of Balliguda Sub-Division.
ASSART, a voluntary organisation, of G.Udaygiri has retained this
Danda Nata : Usually performed by the Ghasis(SC) of Balliguda, Tikaballi
and Chakapad area in the month of Chaitra and Baisakh.
Fair and Festival :
Mati Puja : Observed in the month of Baisakh(April-May)
for worshiping earth goddess for good crops.
Kandula Jatra : Observed in Balliguda in the Month of April.
Balli Jatra : Observed in Tumudibandh.
Makara Jatra : Observed in K. Nuagam in January.
Rhas Jatra : Observed at Kellapada (Phiringia) in March
Kali Puja : Observed at Nuapadar(Phiringia) in November.
Dashera Puja : Observed at Balaskumpa in October.
Rama Lila Jatra : Observed at Bisipada(Phulbani) in April.
Siva Ratri : Observed at Birupakhsya Temple at Chakappad in February.
Ratha Yatra : Observed at Balliguda and Phulbani in July.
Thakurani Jatra : Observed at Phulbani in April-May in alternate
year with Berhempur.
Laxmi Puja : Observed at Sankarakhole in September.
Danda Jatra : Observed throughout the district in the month of March
Baruni jatra : Observed in Rushimal Hills(origin of Rishikulya River)
of Daringbadi in March.
Kendu Jatra : Observed among Kandhas to please the earth goddess
in March-April. Animal sacrifice has been done during the Jatra.
Art and Craft :
Dokra Art : Made up off brass
made by Ghasis(SC) people in Barakhama of Balliguda block and in
Tudubali of Tikabali Block. However artisans of Barakhama have been
making these of superior quality.
Terracota Art : Its in Ratanga of Phiringia block.
But yet to be developed.
Cane & bamboo Craft : Cane work found in Tumudibandh
and bamboo work found throught the district. The artisans of these
group are financed by DWACRA(DRDA) and PAHAD(NGO) of Sudrukumpa
financed by NABARD.
Stone Craft: Found in Pusangia in Balliguda block.
They prepare tribal ornaments made of stones.
Weaving : Handloom weaving commonly practised in
the district. Mostly Panos(SC) have taken up this as source of livelihood.
They , generally, produce cheap and coarse clothes for sale to local
people. Godabisha near G.Udaygiri is noted for production of diamond
Lacquer & Wooden Comb : This craft has been developed by a set
of SC& ST families of G.Udygiri. The main raw materials used
for this are lac and bamboo which are availbale in local forest.
They are being financed by Block. However demand for this comb is
diminishing among tribals.
Applique Works : Some artisans of G.Udaygiri are
doing this work.
Archaeological Sites : here are so many evidences
of Buddhism in this district. One Budha Statue from Dungi near Tikabali
has been shifted to Orissa State Museum. The site is reach with
archeological remaining to be explored. Its is believed to be a
site of 8th/9th AD and was a Buddhist Site during the reign of Bhoumkars.
Latter it has been changed to a Siava Site during the patronage
of next rulers of Somavamsis. Now there are Siva temple found in
the premises. The main Siva temple standing on the pedestal of ancient
structures. Some ancient structures are fixed on the temple wall.
There were found debris of monastic pillars, similar to the pillars
found at Boudh. The amalakis are also found and usually used for
decorative purpose. Distinct mounds are found in the premises. One
of the mound was excavated by a private person for construction
of one temple from which a lot of archeological remaining have come
up, but those were damaged by the unskilled laborers. It proves
that the Siva temple were build on the mound areas with old materials
those were available on the spot. The site needs immediate attention
for preservation and systematic excavation of the site. This may
reveal past history of the district.
Opposite to the Dungi Siba temple two other images
are found surrounded by thick bushes. One of the two images is a
female Goddess and other is an attendant. Both the images are badly
An inscription found in on a rock at Amlapani in
Katringia GP of Phulbani block on the way leading to Katramal(picnic
spot). This spot signifies the movement of monk community, although
there is a mark of overlapping of Buddhism and Saivasim, is general
and common feature of Orissa and in Buddhist settlements.
The route that passes through Kalinga and Phulbani
was very ancient and was popular with the monk community and traders
of ancient and mediaeval period. The route served mostly for the
transportation from coastal Orissa to Central India. Huen Tsang
also said to have passed this route. Hence the geographical location
of Dungi as such afforded every possibility of a monk settlement.
And hence a centre for worship being a monastery and a resting place
for the traders.
Near Chakapad, a mound known as "Chakalati" exists and
the name Brahmanapada also in someway related to this site. But
due to some circumstantial incongruity, the monk community left
the place and the site passed into oblivion.
KANDHAMAL DISTRICT (GO
TOP) (GO HOME PAGE) : The district of Kandhamal
is bestowed with the beauty of nature. It has wild life, scenic
beauty, healthy climate, and serpentine ghat roads for the tourists
who need to relax and unwind. It has attractions, like panoramic
coffee gardens, pine jungles,Ghat roads, hills and water falls,
virigin forest and typical tribal village life. Almost 66% of the
land area of the district is covered with dense forest and
towering mountains which provide shelter to the inhabitants like
Kondhas, classified under the ancient Gondid race of proto Austroloid
group, rich in green meadows at the attitude of 2000 ft to 3000
ft, the terraced vallyes thronged with these colorful tribals in
their natural heritage, dancing and sporting has its own appeal.
Kandhamal is also famous for handicrafts such as Dokra, Terra-Cotta,
Cane and Bamboo works.
The region is proud of its rich cultural
heritage. Mauryan Emperor Ashoka mentioned in Jaugada (Ganjam) edict
about the people of this hill tract as Atavikas who practised their
own religion. The ghat tract of Kandhamal "Kalinga"
was known to the travellers of Medieval history. The tract was used
for the transportation of salt to the central India. Again the route
running through Daringibadi was known in history as Great Military
road discovered by Britishers who happened to come over Daringibadi
for pleasure trips to enjoy the natural beauty and cool climate
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The district head quarters is a place to relax
in and marvel at the natural beauty. It is sorrounded by hills.
The Pillasalunki river flows on its three side and the town is just
on the grove of sal trees. One can enjoy l view of the town
from Bhetkhol and Brahamani-Devi hill top, which present an
ambience of hill towns of lower Himalayas. Other attractions of
the town are its weekly Hata, Jaganath and Narayani
Temple. A morning walk on the main road and visit to the river
side in the afternoon is a wonderful experience.
Putudi Water Fall :
Putudi is a place of natural beauty where river
Salunki falls from the height of 60ft. forming an enchanting ambience.
The roaring sound of the fall with dense forest all around creates
a thrilling sensation. It is 15 kms from Phulbani town.
The beautiful place in the lap of nature is famous
for the Goddess 'BARALA DEVI' who is believed to be the saviour
of the world. The people of this area visit the Goddess frequently
on many occasions particularly on Dashahara. Dashahara Puja is celebrated
with great pomp and show.. Pillasalunki Dam site which is
an ideal and charming place for picnic and sight seing is only 3
kms from this spot. This spot is a good place to relax and
unwind. Balaskumpa is about 15 kms from Phulbani and
linked with good motorable road.
The abode of Lord Birupakshya, on the bank of river
Burtunga, commands a panoramic view of nature. This place is famous
as an important centre of Saivism. Lord Siva is worshipped here
as Birupakshya, Anandeswara and Jageswara with great veneration
and reverence in three different magnificent temples. The striking
features of this place is that the trees around it and siva linga
inside, lean towards south. The festivals like Sivaratri,Sitalsasthi
and Rasha Purnima . are celebrated here . Chakapad is a village
having regular bus communication with Phulbani via Tikabali. . It
is about 55 km from Phulbani.
Daringbadi, a vast area at the height of about
3000ft above sea level is an ideal summer resort which is popularly
named as 'Kashmir of Orissa'. The place is gifted with natural bounties
such as pine jungles, coffee gardens and beautiful valleys. . It
is the only place in Orissa which experiences snow fall during Winter.
The journey from the plains to the hills of Daringbadi is an experience
in itself . This pretty hill station is 100 kms from Phulbani and
50 kms from Balliguda.The resting places are P.W.D. Inspection Bunglow
and a Revenue I.B. A Tourist Bunglow is also under construction.
Gifted with ample scenic beauty, Belghar presents
a panoramic view of lush and rolling hills. It is inhabited by Kutia
Kondha tribe, who follow the age old tradition of food gathering
and hut dwelling. They are very friendly and hospitable. More to
be seen and encountered is the wild life especially elephants. .
Belghar, a hamlet situated about 2555ft above the sea level is very
much suitable for adventurous trekking to the nearby hills. Nearby
Kotagarh sanctury is popularl with tourist who wish to enjoy
the wild unspoilt environment. . Belghar is 165kms from Phulbani
and 70 kms from Balliguda. It is. connected with good motorable
road. Thee is a forest rest house and a tourist bunglow is
coming up. This area is also famous for cane works.
A place of natural beauty with a waterfall and
pond where one can play with fibres amidst dense forest.It
is an ideal place for picnic. The spot is 35 kms from Phulbani
This is a waterfall, with a height of 30ms
near Sudrukumpa on Panisal- Baghiapada forest road . The spot is
18kms from Phulbani and 3 kms from Sudrukumpa .
The palce is famous for its towering zig-zag Ghat
road with scenic beauty. The 11 kms long Ghat road starting from
Kalinga is a picturesque and charming place. The nearby Silviculture
Forest Reaserch Station is an added attraction. It is an ideal picnic
spot on the Phulbani- Berhampur road & 50kms from Phulbani.
A PWD I.B. is available for accomodation .
Ludu Water Fall
This enchanting waterfall is situated at Jakesi,
near Subarnagiri G.P.in Kotogarh Block. It is linked with
a motorable road to kotagarh.It is 165kms from Phulbani and
an ideal place for picnic & trekking.
HANDICRAFTS & TRIBAL ARTS (GO
TOP) (GO HOME PAGE)
Wearing centre at shainipadar(Phulbani town).
Terra cotta and Bamboo Handicrafts at Sudrukumpa
Terra cotta Handicrafts at Ratang.
Cane works at Tumudibandha .
Dokra at Barakhama (Balliguda Block)
& Tudubali, (Tikabali Block).
Stone made Ornament(Necklace) & Utensil
at Pusangia (Balliguda Block).
Diamond Pattern Bed Sheet at Gadabisha (G.Udayagiri
Applique Works at G.Udayagiri.
The horrific ritual of human sacrifice practiced
by the Kandhas upto the middle of the 19th century has been an indelible
blot on the community. But the way they offered dogged resistance
to the British for several decades, not withstanding their deprivation
, they amply deserve kudos for their valiant fight.
The tribals played a stellar role in the Khurda
Rebellion commanded by Buxi Jagabandhu against the British in 1817.
There had been a smouldering discontent against British rule in
the coastal areas of Orissa for several years, on the grounds of
agrarian ,economic and political issues. It was a band of 400 Kandhas
of Ghumusar, who sparked off the conflagration by entering the Khurda
region to fight. Buxi Jagabandhu and his army joined there, and
the revolt soon spread to Khurda, Tangi, Gopa, Bolagarh, Banapur,
Pipili, Nayagarh and other places. They captured Puri in April 1817
and proclaimed restoration of the authority of the King, who had
been deposed by the British. The revolt was so widespread and strident
that the British considered their position in Orissa perilous. But
gradually the rebellion fell through. Buxi Jagabandhu took shelter
in Ghumusar and Boudh for some years from May 1818. The Rajas of
Boudh, Ghumusar, Nayagarh and Dasapalla supported him and the Kandhas
of these areas gave him protection till he surrendered in 1825.
Ganjam district, including Ghumusar, came under
the possession of the British in 1865. The Bhanja Kings of Ghumusor
did not brook interference from the British officers in their adminstrative
affairs. The kings and the people began to resent the exploitative
and oppressive behaviour of the officers. There were rebellion against
the British in 1766, 1778 and 1801. Dora Bissoi, commander of Ghumusar
force, spearheaded the revolt, off and on, from 1815 to 1835. In
all these revolts, the Kandhas of Ghumusar, including the Uttar
Ghumusar area of G.Udayagiri, took a leading part. The refractory
Bhanja Raja, Dhananjaya Bhanja, was dethroned and the principality
was annexed to the British empire on November,3,1835. The deposed
Raja and Dora Bissoi fled to Udayagiri area. Rebellion spread like
wildfire in the entire Uttar Ghumusar region. The British army had
to confront with fierce resistance everywhere. Meanwhile the king
breathed his last on December 31, 1835. The rebellion was crushed
by the British with utmost brutality, According to John Campbell,
" The two years campaign was of unexampled severity" from
the reports of G.E.Russel, special commissioner for Ghumusar, a
ghastly fact is inferred. "Numbers of : konds were shot like
wild beasts, some were seized and hung up on trees. Their villages
were everywhere laid in ashes."
Dora Bissoi fled to Boudh Kandhamal area with some
of his lieutenants. He surrendered in 1837 and the Raja of Anugul
handed him over to the British. Dora Bissoi died in 1846 at Gooty,near
Madras, where he was a prisoner.
The Kondhas of Boudh-kandhamal area rose up in
arms against the invading British as their land and liberty were
at stake. They also resented the interference of the British in
their social and cultural activities and religious rituals. In Boudh-Kandhamal
Nabaghana Kanhar of Ratabari rose in revolt against the king of
Boudh and the British in 1835. The king of Anugul extended his support
and cooperation. His two years revolt came to an end when he, due
to conspiracy of Sam Bissoi, a British supporter, handed over to
the British some Ghumusar insurgents, who had taken shelter under
him. His two sons, Bira and Maheswar, surrendered. On account of
the organisational skill of Dora bissoi and Nabaghan Kanhar, the
uprising had assumed a gigantic proportion in the Kandha inhabited
areas. Hence the British government had to requisition military
forces from Madras, Nagpur and Bengal Divisions to quell the Kandha
There was some semblance of peace and tranquility
in the area for some years. But the Kandhas, under the inspiring
leadership of Chakra Bissoi, Bira Konhar and Madhaba Kanhar, made
brisk preparation from 1844 to wage rebellion against the British.
The rebellion again erupted in 1846 in both Boudh-Kandhamal and
Ghumusar regions. It also broke extensively in Angul, Jajpur, Kalahandi,
Sonepur and Dasapalla. The rebellion was fierce and sporadic in
nature and as the area of operation was the vast expanse of inhospitable
Jungle terrain,the insurgents could sustain the rebellion for a
protracted period of 10 years, even in the face of superior military
strength of the British. The Kandha insurrection fizzled out by
1856. S.C.Macpherson, John Campbell, Mac Vicar and Mac Neil were
the military officers of the British army who successfully put down
the tribal insurgency and terminated the practice of human sacrifice
,Meriah in the local parlance.
During this period of turmoil two tribal strongholds,
Anugul and Kandhamal, were annexed by British in 1847 and 1855 respectively
to their empire.
The district "KANDHAMAL" has two sub-divisions,
Phulbani and Balliguda. Phulbani sub-division forms a broken plateau
of about 518 mtrs above sea level, gridlled almost continously by
high ranges which cut it off from the sorrounding area. On the north-east
and west thease ranges quite perceptibly rise abruptly from the
plains of Boudh district while on the south they merge in the outlines
of the Eastern Ghats of Balliguda Subdivision. The high plateau
lying within thease ranges is broken up by numerous smaller ranges
which form an endless series of valleys varying in size. Thick forest
still covers much of these tracks and the villages lie in scattered
clearings along the hill sides and in valleys below, while some
are in almost inaccessible places on the top most summits of the
hills. The whole of this Sub-division is4 a new work of hills and
forests inter spread here and there with the small hamlets of the
kondhas. This hilly tract is intersected in all directions by streams
and torrent, which run dry after the cessation of the rains. The
uplands and slopes leading down from the foot of the hills are utilised
for growing dry crops periodically depending on the rain. The area
of cultivated land is small. The Balliguda Sub-division is on the
plateau and lies at height varying from 300 meters to 1100 meters
above the mean sea level. The eastern side of the sub-division consists
of wide well cultivated valleys. The southern portion are mountaineous,
covered with dense forests infested with wild animals. The hills
of this Sub-division are a part of the Eastern Ghats.